When considering the chances of establishing a healthy ongoing pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF), the cause of infertility plays a relatively minor role. In recent years, there has been a shift from determining the diagnosis to the individual prognosis for a given patient. A number of prognostic factors were identified, which enabled clinicians to appropriately counsel patients. Patient-determined factors are of crucial importance and some are amenable to intervention such as lifestyle and nutritional advice. However, the attention of clinicians remains on seeking adjuvant therapeutic interventions designed to improve the outcomes of IVF treatment. In this article, the patient-determined factors underlying the individual chance of conceiving and the more commonly prescribed empirical medical therapies prescribed to enhance outcomes are reviewed. It is concluded that greater attention to optimizing the health of the couple before starting IVF treatment may be more beneficial than adjuvant medical therapies during treatment.