PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of amblyopia and associated biometric factors in Danish children.
METHODS: Determination of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using ETDRS charts, non-cycloplegic subjective refractioning guided by automated refractometry, axial length and corneal curvature, fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 1335 children from the population-based Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 (CCC2000) Eye Study. Birth data were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry.
RESULTS: The mean (�SD) age of children was 11.7 (�0.4) years, and 47% were boys. Amblyopia prevalence was 1.5 (95% CL 0.8-2.2) %. Unilateral amblyopic eyes [BCVA < 80 ETDRS letters (0.8 snellen) and ?2 lines difference between the eyes] was 0.6 (95% CL 0.3-1.0) mm shorter, 1.34 (95% CL 0.30-2.37) D more hyperopic and had 0.79 (95% CL 0.14-1.44) D more astigmatism compared with fellow eyes. Compared with the right eyes of the non-amblyopic children, unilateral amblyopic eyes were 1.0 (95% CL 0.5-1.6) mm shorter, 2.48 (95% CL 1.11-3.86) D more hyperopic, 1.09 (95% CL 0.43-1.75) D more astigmatic and had a 47 (95% CL 13-81) ?m thicker subfoveal choroid.
CONCLUSION: Amblyopia was found in 1.5% of Danish children born 22 years after the inception of the nationwide preschool visual screening programme. Amblyopia was associated with anisometropia, astigmatism, a thicker subfoveal choroid and a history of childhood strabismus.