Background: The evaluation of patients with lung lesions is challenging. The nature of the lesion can be determined by pathological evaluation of biopsies. The pulmonologists will be met by increasing demands with regard to biopsy techniques including ultrasound-guided transthoracic needle biopsy (US-TTNB).Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the pulmonologist to a systematic step-by-step guide for performing US-TTNB and to assess the evidence for this approach. Method/results: Indications, contraindications and a step-by-step guide for the techniques used when performing US-TTNB are presented, and major complications and handling of these are described. Conclusion: US-TTNB performed by pulmonologists is a safe and feasible procedure.