We evaluated the feasibility of DEXA (Norland XR-26 mark II) for quantitative measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) in the lateral plane of the distal femur after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). BMD was measured in 5-6 regions of interest (ROI) in close relation to the femoral component. In an in vitro study using 3 different distal femur phantoms, we found that the precision was affected by rotation of the distal femur. When BMD measurements were repeated within a range of motion of 40°, 20°, and 0°, the coefficient of variation (CV) was approximately 15%, 10%, and 0.6%, respectively. We found that the use of bone cement for implant fixation had no effect on the level of BMD. Double measurements performed in 28 patients gave average CV values of 3.3%, 3.0%, and 2.6% for the uncemented Duracon, and Interax femoral components and the cemented AGC components, respectively. Our in vivo average CV measurements of BMD of the distal femur after TKA were on a level, suitable for repeated BMD measurements in prospective studies, wich evaluate adaptive bone remodeling of the distal femur after cemented and uncemented TKA.