BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have explored nurses' perceived barriers to research utilization. In this study, considerations of how to break down the barriers are discussed in order to find new ways to develop and strengthen evidence-based practice.
AIMS: The objective of the study was to identify nurses' perceptions of barriers to research utilization in clinical practice between the years of 2000 and 2018 and across continents by reviewing studies that used the Barriers to Research Utilization (BARRIERS) scale (Appl Nurs Res, 4, 1991, 39).
DESIGN: A systematic review of observational studies based on Joanna Briggs specific guidelines.
METHODS: A systematic search to identify and select eligible studies was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS during January 2019. Google Scholar was also searched to identify additional studies using the Funk et al. (Appl Nurs Res, 4, 1991, 39) BARRIERS scale. An instrument for quality appraisal was constructed for this paper by combining two similar and previously used cross-sectional study checklists (Int J Sociol Soc Policy, 23, 8, 2003; Implement Sci, 5, 32, 2010). Descriptive statistics were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25).
RESULTS: The 27 included studies were conducted in 16 countries across five continents and 11,276 nurses participated. Seven of the top 10 barriers were comprised of organizational factors. These organizational barriers were consistent over time and the five continents, with 56% of the listed top 10 barriers falling under the organizational category. From the year 2000 to 2008, the majority of the studies were conducted in Europe and Australia. However, for the next 10 years (2008-2018), the majority of studies were conducted in Asia, Africa, and North America.
LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: To break down the nurses' barriers to research utilization, our future practice and research focus will be to conduct intervention studies focusing on the effect of facilitators and contextual environment, as well as developing nursing research cultures in clinical practice with support from the nursing management.