CDK4 is involved in the regulation of body weight, pancreatic β-cell proliferation, insulin responsiveness, and diabetes pathogenesis. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CDKN1C, which is regulated by insulin. In addition, CDKN1C plays an important role in β-cell proliferation and is involved in the pathogenesis of the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a disorder characterized by neonatal hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and pre- and post-natal overgrowth. The aim of this study was to investigate if variations in the proximal promoter and the coding region of the CDKN1C and CDK4 genes are associated with type 2 diabetes or changes in related quantitative phenotypes among glucose-tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of the two genes in 62 type 2 diabetic patients resulted in the discovery of seven variants of CDKN1C and two variants of CDK4. In a case-control study comprising 717 type 2 diabetic patients and 518 glucose-tolerant subjects the most frequent variants did not show any difference in allele frequencies between the type 2 diabetic patients and the control subjects. However, in two genotype-quantitative trait correlation studies involving 206 glucose-tolerant offspring of type 2 diabetic patients and 359 young, healthy subjects the CDKN1C del171APVA variant associated with increased birth weight (P=0.05 and P=0.05). Furthermore, the same variant tended to be associated with decreased basal glucose oxidation among 16 genotypically discordant dizygotic twins (P=0.03). In a genotype-quantitative trait study involving 500 middle-aged glucose-tolerant subjects the CDK4 IVS2-31G→A variant was associated with an increased waist circumference (P=0.03) and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.02) and altered fasting plasma glucose (P=0.03). However, these later findings could not be replicated in additional studies. In conclusion, variants in CDKN1C may contribute to the inter-individual variation in birth weight.