Aims: This study aimed to investigate if the previously observed association between the GLUT10 Ala206Thr polymorphism and variation in fasting and oral glucose-induced serum insulin concentrations could be replicated in a large-scale population-based cohort of Danish whites. Methods: The GLUT10 Ala206Thr polymorphism was genotyped in a case-control study of 880 Type 2 diabetic patients and 4372 glucose-tolerant control subjects. The latter group was also enrolled in an assessment of fasting and post-OGTT circulating levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin in relation to genotype. The variant was genotyped by analysis of PCR-generated primer extension by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis. Results: The Ala206Thr variant was equally frequent among Type 2 diabetic patients and glucose-tolerant subjects (P = 0.9) and there was no difference in the distribution of genotype groups (P = 1.0). In the 4372 glucose-tolerant subjects there was no statistically significant association between the polymorphism and levels of fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose and serum insulin along with the insulinogenic index and the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance and insulin secretion. Likewise, in an age-stratified subgroup comprising 1264 subjects, we observed no relationships between the GLUT10 polymorphism and the selected metabolic features. Conclusions: The GLUT10 Ala206Thr polymorphism is not associated with Type 2 diabetes in the Danish population. Furthermore, in the present large-scale cohort, the polymorphism does not associate with phenotypes such as fasting and oral glucose-induced levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin.