Despite an improvement in diabetes care during the last 20 years, the number of diabetic patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) has continued to increase in the Western world. The aim was to study the incidence of patients starting RRT in Denmark from 1990 to 2004. Data were obtained from The Danish National Registry; Report on Dialysis and Transplantation, where all patients actively treated for end-stage renal disease have been registered since 1990. The incidence of end-stage renal disease increased until 2001. Thereafter the incidence stabilized on 130 per million people (pmp). The number of diabetic patients starting RRT increased steadily from: 52 (number of patients) in 1990, 113 in 1995, 150 in 2000, 168 in 2001, and 183 in 2002. However, during the years 2003 and 2004 this number was significantly reduced by 15% to 156 and 155, respectively. This was mainly due to a 22% reduction in the number of non-insulin- treated (type II) diabetic patients (number of patients): 98, 82, and 76 in 2002, 2003, and 2004, respectively. The mean age in the background population, the mean age in diabetic patients starting RRT and the incidence of type I and type II diabetes increased during the study period. The encouraging stabilization in the incidence of diabetic patients referred for RRT observed in Denmark could be the result of implementation of a multifactorial and more intensive renoprotective intervention in patients with diabetes and chronic progressive renal disease.