Spectrum of NMDA Receptor Variants in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy

Cathrine E Gjerulfsen, Ilona Krey, Chiara Klöckner, Guido Rubboli, Johannes R Lemke, Rikke S Møller*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningpeer review

Abstract

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are ligand-gated ion channels mediating excitatory neurotransmission and are important for normal brain development, cognitive abilities, and motor functions. Pathogenic variants in the Glutamate receptor Ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (GRIN) genes (GRIN1, GRIN2A-D) encoding NMDAR subunits have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsies ranging from treatable focal epilepsies to devastating early-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. Genetic variants in NMDA receptor genes can cause a range of complex alterations to receptor properties resulting in various degrees of loss-of-function, gain-of-function, or mixtures thereof. Understanding how genetic variants affect the function of the receptors, therefore, represents an important first step in the ongoing development towards targeted therapies. Currently, targeted treatment options for GRIN-related diseases are limited. However, treatment with memantine has been reported to significantly reduce seizure frequency in a few individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies harboring de novo gain-of-function GRIN2A missense variants, and supplementary treatment with L-serine has been associated with improved motor and cognitive performance as well as reduced seizure frequency in patients with GRIN2B loss-of-function missense variants as well as GRIN2A and GRIN2B null variants.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Sider (fra-til)1-11
Antal sider11
TidsskriftMethods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Vol/bind2799
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2024

Bibliografisk note

© 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

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