We investigated the effects of socioeconomic, demographic and health-related indicators on the incidence of and survival from breast cancer diagnosed in 1994-2003 with follow-up through 2006 in Denmark using information from nationwide population-based registers. The analyses were based on data on 25,855 patients with breast cancer in a cohort of 3.22 million people born between 1925 and 1973 and aged ≥30 years. In general, the incidence of breast cancer increased with increasing social advantage, with unemployment or retirement, with increasing urbanicity and with being single or divorced. A history of admission for a psychiatric disorder increased the incidence of breast cancer. The overall relative short-term survival was high (96%), but survival improved with higher educational level and income. Whilst the relative 5-year survival after breast cancer was high (79%), there was significantly poorer relative survival amongst less advantaged and single women.