A semi-national laboratory-based surveillance programme for fungaemia was initiated in 2003 that now covers c. 3.5 million inhabitants (64%) of the Danish population. In total, 1089 episodes of fungaemia were recorded during 2004-2006, corresponding to an annual incidence of 10.4/ 100000 inhabitants. The annual number of episodes increased by 17% during the study period. Candida spp. accounted for 98% of the fungal pathogens. Although Candida albicans remained predominant, the proportion of C. albicans decreased from 66.1% in 2004 to 53.8% in 2006 (p <0.01), and varied considerably among participating departments, e.g., from 51.1% at a university hospital in Copenhagen to 67.6% in North Jutland County. Candida glabrata ranked second, and increased in proportion from 16.7% to 22.7% (p 0.04). Candida krusei was isolated rarely (4.1%), but the proportion doubled during the study period from 3.2% to 6.4% (p 0.06). MIC distributions of amphotericin.B and caspofungin were in close agreement with the patterns predicted by species identification; however, decreased susceptibility to voriconazole, defined as an MIC of >1 mg/L, was detected in one (2.5%) C. glabrata isolate in 2004 and in 12 (14.0%) isolates in 2006 (p 0.03). Overall, the proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole exceeded 30% in 2006. The incidence of fungaemia in Denmark was three-fold higher than that reported from other Nordic countries and is increasing. Decreased susceptibility to fluconazole is frequent, and a new trend towards C. glabrata isolates with elevated voriconazole MICs was observed.