BACKGROUND: Surgical outcome results after repair for parastomal hernia are sparsely reported and based on small-scale studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze surgical risk factors for 30-day reoperation and mortality, and, secondarily, to report the risk of reoperation for recurrence. DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of nationwide perioperative surgical variables. The primary outcome was reoperation for surgical complications and/or mortality within 30 days after parastomal hernia repair. Follow-up was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. Detailed patient-related data were based on hospital files. Multivariate analysis was based on a compound parameter: 30-day reoperation or death. SETTING AND PATIENTS: All patients with a parastomal hernia repair registered in the Danish Hernia Database from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate and logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for 30-day reoperation or death. RESULTS: The study included 174 patients with a parastomal hernia repair (142 elective and 32 emergency repairs; 56 open and 118 laparoscopic repairs). Median follow-up was 20 months (range, 0-47). A total of 13.2% were reoperated because of postoperative complications, and 6.3% of patients died within the first 30 postoperative days. Emergency repair was the strongest risk factor for reoperation or death in multivariate analyses (OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 2.7-21.5). No difference was found in preoperative risk of poor outcome between elective and emergency repairs (Charlson score 4 (range, 0-12) vs 5 (0-11), p = 0.07). After 3 years, the cumulated reoperation rate for recurrence was 10.8% (open 17.2% and laparoscopic 3.8%). LIMITATIONS: Patients' comorbidity was based on retrospective data, and the study had a relatively short follow-up. CONCLUSION: In the present nationwide study, repair for a parastomal hernia was associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, and repair for recurrence. Emergency repair was the only important risk factor to predict poor 30-day postoperative outcome.