BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 may trigger both vasculitis and arrhythmias as part of a multisystem inflammatory syndrome described in children as well as in adults following COVID-19 infection with only minor respiratory symptoms. The syndrome denotes a severe dysfunction of one or more extra-pulmonary organ systems, with symptom onset approximately 2-5 weeks after the COVID-19 infection. In the present case, a seemingly intractable ventricular tachycardia preceded by SARS-CoV2 infection was only managed following the diagnosis and management of aortitis.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old woman was hospitalized due to syncope, following a mild COVID-19 infection. She presented with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and intermittent ventricular tachycardia interpreted as a septum-triggered bundle branch reentry ventricular tachycardia, unaffected by amiodaron, lidocaine and adenosine. A CT-scan revealed inflammation of the aortic arch, extending into the aortic root. In the following days, the tachycardia progressed to ventricular storm with intermittent third-degree AV block. A temporary pacemaker was implanted, and radiofrequency ablation was performed to both sides of the ventricular septum after which the ventricular tachycardia was non-inducible. Following supplemental prednisolone treatment, cardiac symptoms and arrythmia subsided, but recurred after tapering. Long-term prednisolone treatment was therefore initiated with no relapse in the following 14 months.
CONCLUSION: We present a rare case of aortitis complicated with life-threatening ventricular tachycardia presided by Covid-19 infection without major respiratory symptoms. Given a known normal AV conduction prior to the COVID-19 infection, it seems likely that the ensuing aortitis in turn affected the septal myocardium, enabling the reentry tachycardia. Generally, bundle branch reentry tachycardia is best treated with radiofrequency ablation, but if it is due to aortitis with myocardial affection, long-term anti-inflammatory treatment is mandatory to prevent relapse and assure arrhythmia control. Our case highlights importance to recognize the existence of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) following COVID-19 infection in patients with alarming cardiovascular symptoms. The case shows that the early use of an CT-scan was crucial for both proper diagnosis and treatment option.
|Tidsskrift||BMC Cardiovascular Disorders|
|Status||Udgivet - 25 jan. 2023|