Background. Hypovitaminosis D is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D replenishment in CKD are not well described. Methods. An 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel intervention study was conducted in haemodialysis (HD) and non-HD CKD patients. Treatment consisted of 40 000 IU of cholecalciferol orally per week. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-diOHD), plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum phosphate, ionized serum calcium and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) were analysed. We also investigated biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (plasma D-dimer, plasma fibrinogen, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, plasma interleukin 6, plasma C-reactive protein, blood pressure, aortic augmentation index, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h urinary protein loss). Objective and subjective health variables were assessed (muscle function tests, visual analogue scores and Health Assessment Questionnaire). Results. Fifty-two CKD patients with 25-OHD <50 nmol/L at screening were included. Cholecalciferol supplementation led to a significant increase to a median of 155 nmol/L 25-OHD (interquartile range 137173 nmol/L) in treated patients (n = 25, P < 0.001). In non-HD patients, we saw a significant increase in 1,25-diOHD (n = 13, P < 0.01) and a lowering of PTH (n = 13, P < 0.001). This was not observed in HD patients. Cholecalciferol supplementation caused a significant increase in serum calcium and FGF-23. Conclusions. 25-OHD replenishment was effectively obtained with the employed cholecalciferol dosing. In non-HD patients, it had favourable effects on 1,25-diOHD and PTH. Vitamin D-supplemented patients must be monitored for hypercalcaemia. The present study could not identify significant pleiotropic effects of 25-OHD replenishment.