Pulse sequence design for MR velocity mapping of complex flow: Notes on the necessity of low echo times

F. Ståhlberg*, C. Thomsen, L. Söndergaard, O. Henriksen

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

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    Abstrakt

    Lowering of the echo time (TE) has been proposed as a way to reduce effects of phase dispersion in MR velocity mapping, because a low TE reduces sensitivity to higher-order motion terms while first-order velocity sensitivity is maintained. Methods of lowering TE involves the use of extreme gradient ramp times and gradient strengths as well as reduction of the duration of transmit/receive windows, the latter method causing decrements in image resolution. When reducing higher-order sensitivity, however, it is not the overall TE that is the critical parameter, but rather the time pattern of the gradients used in the experiment. Hence, changes in TE without subsequent variations in gradient pattern would, according to theory, not affect quantitative measurements of complex flow and vice versa. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate this relation and utilize the experience to create a sequence robust towards complex flow without sacrifices in image resolution. Our experimental observations show that variations in TE alone while maintaining the time course of the velocity-encoding gradient does not significantly affect measurements of through-plane average complex flow in the studied velocity range. A parameter that cannot be measured as accurately if TE is increased is the peak flow. A phase mapping sequence with prolonged TE from 3 ms to 5 ms but with short duration of the velocity-encoding (section-selective) gradient and improved in-plane resolution was demonstrated in vivo.

    OriginalsprogEngelsk
    Sider (fra-til)1255-1262
    Antal sider8
    TidsskriftMagnetic Resonance Imaging
    Vol/bind12
    Udgave nummer8
    DOI
    StatusUdgivet - 1994

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