The aim of this study was to assess the risks of psychiatric disorders in a large cohort of 905 individuals with NF1 and 7614 population comparisons matched on sex and year of birth. The cohort was linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register to ascertain information on hospital contacts for psychiatric disorders based on the International Classification of Diseases version 8 and 10. The hazard ratio (HR) for a first psychiatric hospital contact was higher in girls (4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-9.69) and boys with NF1 (5.02, 95% CI 3.27-7.69) <7 years of age than in the population comparisons. Both sexes had increased HRs for developmental disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and intellectual disabilities in childhood. Females with NF1 had also increased HRs for unipolar depression, other emotional and behavioral disorders, and severe stress reaction and adjustment disorders in early adulthood. The HRs for psychoses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and substance abuse were similar in individuals with NF1 and the population comparisons. Finally, the cumulative incidence of a first hospital contact due to any psychiatric disorder by age 30 years was 35% (95% CI 29-41) in females and 28% (95% CI 19-37) in males with NF1. Thus, screening for psychiatric disorders may be important for early diagnosis and facilitation of appropriate and effective treatment in individuals with NF1.