Purpose The use of anthracycline chemotherapy is associated with heart failure (HF) among survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to understand the contribution of preexisting cardiovascular risk factors to HF risk among NHL survivors. Methods Using Danish registries, we identified adults diagnosed with aggressive NHL from 2000 to 2010 and sex- and age-matched general-population controls. We assessed HF from 9 months after diagnosis through 2012. We used Cox regression analysis to assess differences in risk for HF between survivors and general population controls. Among survivors only, preexisting cardiovascular factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) and preexisting cardiovascular disease were ascertained. We used multivariable Cox regression to model the association of preexisting cardiovascular conditions on subsequent HF. Results Among 2,508 survivors of NHL and 7,399 controls, there was a 42% increased risk of HF among survivors compared with general population controls (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.88). Among survivors (median age at diagnosis, 62 years; 56% male), 115 were diagnosed with HF during follow-up (median years of follow-up, 2.5). Before NHL diagnosis, 39% had $ 1 cardiovascular risk factor; 92% of survivors were treated with anthracycline-containing regimens. In multivariable analysis, intrinsic heart disease diagnosed before lymphoma was associated with increased risk of HF (HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.15 to 6.36), whereas preexisting vascular disease had no association with HF (P . .05). Survivors with cardiovascular risk factors had an increased risk of HF compared with those with none (for 1 v 0 cardiovascular risk factors: HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.47; for $ 2 v 0 cardiovascular risk factors: HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.56 to 5.23; joint P, .01). Conclusion In a large, population-based cohort of NHL survivors, preexisting cardiovascular conditions were associated with increased risk of HF. Preventive approaches should take baseline cardiovascular health into account.