Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease are chronic, highly prevalent conditions requiring long-term treatment that is both effective and practical. On-demand therapy with a proton pump inhibitor may meet that need. It is becoming a mainstay of long-term treatment because it reduces the risk of over- and under-treatment, is cost-effective and user friendly. Epidemiological and clinical observations speak also in its favour. However, for the anticipated benefits of on-demand therapy to accrue in clinical practice, on-demand treatment algorithms are required. These algorithms must specify the initial evaluation and treatment of candidates, and follow-up protocols for an on-demand strategy. Our group has developed such algorithms, which are presented here.