Perioperative factors are probably essential for different oncological outcomes. This systematic review investigates the literature concerning overall mortality and postoperative complications after cancer surgery with inhalational (INHA) and intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). A search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, including studies with patients undergoing surgery for cancer and where TIVA was compared with INHA. Two investigators identified relevant papers in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Risks of bias assessment tools from the Cochrane Collaboration were used for evaluating quality of evidence. Eight studies with a total of 10,696 patients were included. Four studies reported data regarding overall mortality and four studies reported data regarding postoperative complications. Evidence was evaluated to be of moderate to serious risk of bias. Three retrospective studies presented a hazard ratio (HR) adjusting for several confounders. One study reported an increased overall mortality after INHA with a HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.31–1.64, p ≤ 0.001), while another study reported a tendency of decreased overall mortality after TIVA (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.00, p = 0.051). A third study showed no difference in the overall mortality, but prolonged recurrence-free survival after TIVA with a HR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.27–0.86, p = 0.014). In one study, the rate of pulmonary complications was significantly higher after INHA compared with TIVA, while other postoperative complications were comparable. There are currently four propensity-adjusted retrospective studies indicating that TIVA might be the preferred anesthetic choice in cancer surgery. However, evidence is currently of low quality and randomized clinical trials are required for further investigation.