The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of treatment of severe aortic endocarditis with an aortic homograft (an aortic valve and root from a donor) in combination with antibiotic therapy. 24 patients with either aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (n=16) or severe aortic native valve endocarditis (n=8) with destruction of 1 or more cusps, paravalvular abscess formation and/or cardiac fistulas caused by aggressive bacteria, underwent surgery in 1997-2006. Staphylococcal species were the most common pathogens followed by streptococci. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was started before surgery and continued for at least 4-6 weeks. Three patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis died within the first 24 h after surgery from heart failure. Two of these patients required an additional implantation of a mitral valve prosthesis. Five patients died from non-cardiac causes within 1-7 y of surgery. Within the follow-up period no patients had relapse of endocarditis, and only 1 episode of recurrent endocarditis in an intravenous drug abuser was registered. In conclusion, an aortic homograft in combination with intravenous antibiotics is an excellent option for treatment of severe aortic endocarditis.