Novel Invisible Spectral Flicker Induces 40 Hz Neural Entrainment with Similar Spatial Distribution as 40 Hz Stroboscopic Light

Mikkel Pejstrup Agger*, Marcus Schultz Carstensen, Mark Alexander Henney, Luna Skytte Hansen, Anders Ohlhues Baandrup, Mai Nguyen, Paul Michael Petersen, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Troels Wesenberg Kjær

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelForskningpeer review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Exposure to 40 Hz stroboscopic light, for one hour a day, has previously been published as a potential treatment option for Alzheimer's disease in animal models. However, exposure for an hour a day to 40 Hz stroboscopic light can be strenuous and examining other types of 40 Hz inducing stimuli is paramount if chronic treatment is wanted.

OBJECTIVE: A core assumption behind ensuring a therapeutic outcome is that the visual stimuli can induce 40 Hz gamma entrainment. Here, we examine whether a specific visual stimulus, 40 Hz invisible spectral flicker (ISF), can induce gamma entrainment and how it differs from both continuous light (CON) and 40 Hz stroboscopic light (STROBE).

METHODS: The study included non-simultaneous EEG-fMRI neuroimaging of 13 young healthy volunteers during light exposure. Each light condition (i.e., CON, ISF, or STROBE) was active for 30 seconds followed immediately by the next.

RESULTS: Entrainment of 40 Hz neural activity were significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio during exposure to ISF (mean: 3.03, 95% CI 2.07 to 3.99) and STROBE (mean: 12.04, 95% CI 10.18 to 13.87) compared to CON. Additionally STROBE had a higher entrainment than ISF (mean: 9.01, 95% CI 7.16 to 12.14).

CONCLUSION: This study presents a novel method of 40 Hz entrainment using ISF. This enables the possibility of future randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials with acceptable double blinding due to the essentially imperceivable flicker, which is expected to substantially reduce discomfort compared to interventions with stroboscopic flicker.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
DOI
StatusUdgivet, E-publikation før trykning - 13 maj 2022

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