Objectives: Nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) and angiographic optical coherence tomography (OCTA) have potential in diagnosing PsA and differentiating it from psoriasis vulgaris (PsO) and hand OA. We aimed to assess the diagnostic properties of NVC and OCTA in patients with PsA compared with patients with PsO and hand OA based on nailfold capillary patterns.
Methods: Patients with DIP joint PsA and nail involvement (n = 50), PsO with nail involvement (n = 12) and OA (n = 13) were included in this cross-sectional study. Capillaries were evaluated semi-quantitatively and qualitatively. Differences in capillary findings between groups were assessed using mixed linear models. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the probability for PsA diagnosis based on capillaroscopy findings.
Results: Below mean capillary density and reduced nailfold blood flow in OCTA images distinguished PsA from both PsO (P = 0.004 and P = 0.052, respectively) and OA (P = 0.024 and P < 0.001, respectively). Qualitative analysis revealed that glomerular capillaries were found in only 3% of PsA patients but in 13% of PsO patients (P = 0.003). Furthermore, crossed vessels were seen in only 55% of PsA patients and 71% of PsO patients (P = 0.043). NVC microhaemorrhage was dominant in PsA patients (13%) and significantly different from OA patients (P <0.05). No capillary pattern was associated with an increased probability of the PsA diagnosis.
Conclusion: A pathognomonic pattern for PsA diagnosis was not identified; however, we demonstrated some characteristic capillaroscopy findings for PsA, such as decreased capillary density, reduced blood flow and fewer crossed vessels in OCTA and presence of NVC microhaemorrhages.