The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are acquired hematological stem cell neoplasms characterized by driver mutations in JAK2, CALR, or MPL. Additive mutations may appear in predominantly epigenetic regulator, RNA splicing and signaling pathway genes. These molecular mutations are a hallmark of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic assessment in patients with MPNs. Over the past decade, next generation sequencing (NGS) has identified multiple somatic mutations in MPNs and has contributed substantially to our understanding of the disease pathogenesis highlighting the role of clonal evolution in disease progression. In addition, disease prognostication has expanded from encompassing only clinical decision making to include genomics in prognostic scoring systems. Taking into account the decreasing costs and increasing speed and availability of high throughput technologies, the integration of NGS into a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic pipeline is within reach. In this review, these aspects will be discussed highlighting their role regarding disease outcome and treatment modalities in patients with MPNs.