Nationwide Incidence of Thyroid Eye Disease and Cumulative Incidence of Strabismus and Surgical Interventions in Denmark

Lena Boulakh, Birte Nygaard, Toke Bek, Jens Oscar Faber, Steffen Heegaard, Peter Bjerre Toft, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Anne Pernille Toft-Petersen, Helena Buch Hesgaard, Christina Ellervik

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelForskningpeer review


Importance: Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a serious condition that can cause proptosis and strabismus and, in rare cases, lead to blindness. Incidence data for TED and strabismus and surgical interventions after TED are sparce.

Objective: To investigate the nationwide incidence of TED, strabismus, and surgical interventions associated with TED.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A Danish nationwide registry-based cohort study between 2000, which marks the beginning of uniform coding for the decompression surgery nationwide, and 2018. The cohort consisted of a mean 4.3 million people aged 18 to 100 years with no prior TED diagnosis each year. Total observation time was 8.22 × 107 person-years (women, 4.18 × 107 person-years; men, 4.04 × 107 person-years).

Main Outcome Measures: The annual numeric and age-standardized incidence of hospital-treated TED and cumulative incidence of strabismus, strabismus surgery, and orbital decompression surgery in patients with TED. The incidence was stratified by sex, thyroid diagnosis, and age.

Results: A total of 4106 incident diagnoses of TED were identified during 19 years among 3344 women (81.4%) and 762 men (18.6%). The mean numeric annual nationwide incidence rate of TED was 5.0 per 100 000 person-years overall, 8.0 per 100 000 person-years in women, and 1.9 per 100 000 person-years in men, resulting in a 4:1 ratio of women to men with TED. The age-standardized incidence was similar. The mean (SD) age at onset was 51.3 (14.5) years. At the time of TED diagnosis, 611 patients (14.9%) were euthyroid, 477 (11.6%) were hypothyroid, and 3018 (73.5%) were hyperthyroid. In patients with TED who were euthyroid, the 4-year cumulative incidence was 41% for antithyroid medication and 13% for L-thyroxine. In patients with TED, the 4-year cumulative incidence for strabismus was 10%. The 4-year cumulative incidence of surgical interventions after TED was 8% for strabismus surgery and 5% for orbital decompression. At 4 years, strabismus surgery was more common in men (13.3%; 95% CI, 10.75-15.86) than in women (7.2%; 95% CI, 6.24-8.08), and the absolute difference was 6.1% (95% CI, 3.42-8.14; P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance: This study in Denmark provides nationwide empirical incidence of TED and strabismus and surgical interventions after TED that required inpatient or outpatient hospital treatment, and might be used for patient information and health care planning.

Sider (fra-til)667-673
Antal sider7
TidsskriftJAMA Ophthalmology
Udgave nummer7
Tidlig onlinedato19 maj 2022
StatusUdgivet - 1 jul. 2022


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