Purpose: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a rare opportunistic infection with a high mortality despite relevant treatment.
Observations: A 3-year-old girl under treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed periorbital swelling, ophthalmoplegia and a necrotic palatal lesion during a period of neutropenia. Imaging revealed sinusitis, pre- and postseptal cellulitis. The disease later progressed to cerebral involvement and orbital apex syndrome with complete ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and loss of vision. The patient was treated with systemic antifungal therapy, hyperbaric oxygen and extensive surgery. This included orbital exenteration, skull base resection, cerebral debridement with placement of an Ommaya reservoir for intrathecal administrations of amphotericin B (AmB) and in addition endoscopic sinus surgery with local AmB installation. Chemotherapy was safely continued after resolution of the ROCM and the patient remains in complete remission after 5 years.
Conclusion and importance: Patients with ROCM can be cured with aggressive multimodality treatment, including surgical intervention, even if in myelosuppression.