Background and purpose - The UCLA Activity Scale (UCLA) is a questionnaire assessing physical activity level from 1 (low) to 10 (high) in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty (HA/KA). After translation and cultural adaptation, we evaluated the measurement properties of the Danish UCLA.Patients and methods - After dual panel translation, cognitive interviews were performed among 55 HA/KA patients. An orthopedic surgeon and a physiotherapist estimated UCLA scores for 80 KA patients based on short interviews. Measurement properties were evaluated in 130 HA and 134 KA patients preoperatively and 1-year postoperatively.Results - To suit Danish patients of today, several adaptations were required. Prior to interviews, 4 patients were excluded, and 11 misinterpreted the answer options. Examiners rated the remaining 65 patients (mean age 67 years) 0.2-1.6 UCLA levels lower than patients themselves. The 130 HA and 134 KA patients (mean age 71/68 years) changed from 4.3 (SD 1.9)/4.5 (1.8) preoperatively to 6.6 (1.8)/6.2 (1.0) at 1-year follow-up. 103 (79%) HA and 89 (66%) KA patients reported increased activity. Effect sizes were large (1.2/0.96). Knee patients reaching minimal important change (MIC, ≥ 8 Oxford Knee Score points) had higher 1-year UCLA scores than patients not reaching MIC.Interpretation - Original scale development was undocumented. Content validity was questionable, and there was discrepancy between patient and examiner estimates. UCLA appears valuable for measuring change in self-reported physical activity on a group level. 4 out of 5 HA patients and 2 out of 3 KA patients were more physically active 1 year after joint replacement surgery.