OBJECTIVES: Antiresorptive medication has been reported to be associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). This systematic review aims at investigating the incidence of and risk factors for MRONJ after tooth extractions in cancer patients treated with high-dose bisphosphonate and denosumab (BP and DS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The protocol followed the PRISMA statement list and was registered in PROSPERO. Searches were performed for literature published up to April 2021 in the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL and then supplemented by manual research.
RESULTS: The search process resulted in 771 identified articles, of which seven studies fitted the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome framework. All were observational studies and four had control groups. A total of 550 patients treated with BP and DS were identified of whom 271 had received tooth extractions after medication onset. Due to significant heterogenicity in the collected data, only a qualitative analysis was performed. The MRONJ incidence after tooth extractions varied between 11% and 50% at the patient level. MRONJ occurred up to 3 years after the tooth extraction. Teeth affected by inflammation before the extraction and additional osteotomy during the surgical procedure were identified as risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliable methods of diagnosing MRONJ and adequate follow-up periods are important factors in obtaining the actual incidence of MRONJ after tooth extractions in patients treated with high-dose BP and DS.