A series of 122 consecutive patients with bone marrow fibrosis initially referred or categorized as idiopathic myelofibrosis is described. After a clinical and pathological review 14 patients were classified as postpolycythaemic myelofibrosis and 7 patients as a transitional myeloproliferative disorder. In 13 patients a diagnosis of hairy cell leukaemia was made, 3 patients had malignant tymphoma, 2 had malignant histiocytosis, and 1 patient had systemic lupus erythematosus with myelofibrosis. Two patients were excluded for further analysis owing to insufficient data. In the remaining 80 patients a diagnosis of idiopathic myelofibrosis was made. The clinical and laboratory findings in this series of patients are presented and compared to those in previous series. Infectious, cardiovascular, thromboembolic, and haemorrhagic complications were frequent, being recorded in 63%, 50%, 40%, and 33% of the patients, respectively. Various autoimmune phenomena were found in a proportion of the patients, but none had clinical evidence of connective tissue disease. Fifteen patients (19%) had a syndrome of acute myelofibrosis. The diagnostic criteria for this disease entity and its place within the spectrum of myeloproliferative disorders are discussed. In the present series acute myelofibrosis was found to encompass various transitional stages toward the evolution of acute leukaemia. It is proposed that acute or malignant myelofibrosis is considered as an acute variant of idiopathic myelofibrosis. Within this syndrome the acute variant seems to be far more common than previously recognized, which may also explain the marked clinical heterogeneity of the myelofibrosis/osteomyelosclerosis syndrome in this and most previous series.