Objective Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Despite an increased focus on improved nutrition in dialysis patients, it is claimed that the prevalence of malnutrition in this group of patients has not changed during the last decades. Direct historical comparisons of the nutritional status of dialysis patients have never been published. To directly compare the nutritional status of past and current dialysis patients, we implemented the methodology of a study from 1986 on a population of dialysis patients in 2014. Design Historical study comparing results of two cross-sectional studies performed in 1986 and 2014. Setting We compared the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients attending the dialysis center at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, in February to June 2014, with that of HD and PD patients treated at the dialysis center at Fredericia Hospital, Denmark, in April 1986. Subjects Maintenance PD and HD patients (n = 64 in 2014 and n = 48 in 1986). Methods We performed anthropometry (body weight, triceps skinfold, and midarm muscle circumferences [MAMCs]) and determined plasma transferrin. Main Outcome Measure Relative body weight, triceps skinfold, MAMC, body mass index, and prevalence of protein-caloric malnutrition as defined in the original study from 1986. Results Average relative body weight, triceps skinfold, MAMC, and body mass index were significantly higher in 2014 compared with 1986. The prevalence of protein-caloric malnutrition was significantly lower in 2014 (18%) compared with 1986 (52%). Conclusions The nutritional status of maintenance dialysis patients has improved during the last 3 decades. The reason for this improvement could not be identified in the present study, but the most likely contributors are the higher prevalence of obesity in the general population, less predialytic malnutrition, and an improved focus on nutrition in maintenance dialysis patients.