The impact of polymorphisms in the genes coding for angiotensinogen (M235T), ACE (ID), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166→C) on decline in GFR and doubling of s-creatinine or development of ESRD in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN) was tested. From 1985, all patients (n = 169) who had established diabetic nephropathy and were treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) were identified consecutively at Steno Diabetes Center. Patients were followed for a median of 6 yr (range, 3 to 15 yr), with nine (range, three to 29) measurements of GFR (51Cr-EDTA). In a Cox proportional hazards model corrected for other risk factors, the D allele (ACE/ID) was associated with time to doubling of s-creatinine/ESRD (rate ratio, 1.81 per allele; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 3.03; P = 0.02). A new interaction hypothesis was generated demonstrating that the following variables were associated with accelerated decline in GFR: albuminuria (estimate, 2.12 ml/min per yr per 10-fold increase in albuminuria; P < 0.001), mean BP (estimate, 0.88 ml/min per yr per 10 mmHg; P = 0.02), hemoglobin A1c (estimate, 0.54 min/min per yr per 1%; P = 0.02), and number of M (M235T)/D (ID)/A (A1166→C) alleles (estimate, 0.45 ml/min per yr per allele; P = 0.049). Number of M/D/A alleles also influenced time to doubling of s-creatinine or ESRD. In this study of patients with type 1 diabetes, the D allele of the ACE/ID polymorphism in addition to nongenetic risk factors independently accelerated progression of DN during ACE-I. Interaction between polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system also influenced the loss of kidney function. This new genetic interaction model needs to be confirmed in future studies.
|Tidsskrift||Journal of the American Society of Nephrology|
|Status||Udgivet - 1 nov. 2003|