OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term trends in marital stability, academic achievement, income, and socioeconomic status in patients with concussion.
DESIGN AND SETTING: Danish national register-based cohort study with 5 years of follow-up.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23 549 hospital-admitted or emergency-treated patients between 18 and 60 years of age with concussion (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] diagnosis S06.0) and 22 228 matching controls.
MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes were the differences between patients with concussion and controls in the change from injury date to 5 years postinjury in the dichotomized outcomes-martial stability, academic achievement, income, and socioeconomic status.
RESULTS: Fewer patients had high education (19.43%) compared with controls (23.96%) and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of high education beyond the difference in prevalence at baseline became even lower at 5 years of follow-up (OR: 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-0.95). Patients were to a lesser extent gainfully employed (67.05%) compared with controls (77.32%) and had lower odds of being gainfully employed (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.88), self-employed, leaders, or managers (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.95) at 5 years postinjury, beyond differences at baseline.
CONCLUSIONS: Academic achievement and socioeconomic status are affected by concussion. There is no evidence that marital stability and income are affected. Supporting interventions should be considered those at risk of persistent symptoms.