Objective: To establish the first trimester levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) in pregnancies with adverse outcome. Furthermore, to determine the screening performance for adverse outcome using SP1 alone and in combination with other first trimester markers including proMBP and PAPP-A. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in a primary hospital setting. The SP1 concentration was measured in first trimester maternal serum in pregnancies with small-for-gestational age fetuses (SGA) (n = 150), spontaneous preterm delivery (n = 88), preeclampsia (n = 40) and in controls (n = 500). Concentrations were converted to multiples of the median (MoM) in controls and groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcome. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The SP1 MoM median was significantly reduced in cases with SGA (0.76 MoM, p < 0.0005) and spontaneous preterm delivery (0.77 MoM, p < 0.0005) whereas no alteration was found in cases with preeclampsia (0.94 MoM, p = 0.723). A significant correlation (r = 0.217) between log 10(SP1 MoM) and the birth weight percentile was found in the SGA group. Screening performance was only slightly improved when SP1 was combined with PAPP-A or proMBP. Conclusion: SP1 is a first trimester maternal serum marker of SGA and preterm delivery.