OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and EEG features of Encephalopathy with Status Epilepticus during slow Sleep (ESES) related to CNKSR2 pathogenic variants.
METHODS: Detailed clinical history, repeated wakefulness/overnight sleep EEGs, brain MRI were collected in five patients, including one female, with CNKSR2-related ESES.
RESULTS: Neurodevelopment in infancy was normal in two patients, delayed in three. Epilepsy onset (age range: 2-6 years) was associated with appearance or aggravation of cognitive impairment, language regression and/or behavioral disorders. Worsening of epilepsy and of cognitive/behavioral disturbances paralleled by enhancement of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-related, frontally predominant, EEG epileptic discharges [spike-wave-index (SWI): range 60-96%] was consistent with ESES. In three patients, episodes of absence status epilepticus or aggravation of atypical absences occurred, in this latter case associated with striking increment of awake SWI. Speech/oro-motor dyspraxia was diagnosed in four patients. In two patients, long-term follow-up showed epilepsy remission and persistence of mild/moderate cognitive disorders and behavioral disturbances into adulthood.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel findings of our study are occurrence also in females, normal neurodevelopment before epilepsy onset, epilepsy aggravation associated with enhanced awake SWI, mild/moderate evolution in adulthood and language disorder due to speech/oro-motor dyspraxia.
SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of CNKSR2-related ESES.