OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of extended human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-F haplotypes on time to pregnancy as measured by the number of treatment cycles in a cohort of couples in infertility treatment.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of couples undergoing infertility treatment.
SETTING: University hospital.
PATIENT(S): A cohort of 127 couples and four single women in infertility treatment.
INTERVENTION(S): Next-generation sequencing of the HLA-G gene and genotyping of three HLA-F locus single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Extended HLA-F.HLA-G haplotypes, HLA-G promoter haplotypes and HLA-G 3'UTR haplotypes and their association with time to pregnancy as measured by number of treatment cycles until achievement of pregnancy with a live birth. Linkage disequilibrium between HLA-G variations and three HLA-F locus SNPs that impact time to pregnancy.
RESULT(S): The effect of the HLA-G 3'UTR haplotype, UTR-4, was significantly increased, or modified, if the partner was a carrier compared to being a noncarrier. Extended HLA-F.HLA-G haplotypes, HLA-G promoter haplotypes, and the HLA-G 14 bp indel of the female partners were not associated with time to pregnancy. However, a trend for an association of the HLA-G 14bp insertion allele with a higher frequency of miscarriage than the 14bp deletion allele was observed. Certain HLA-G variations are in linkage disequilibrium with three HLA-F locus SNPs that influence time to pregnancy.
CONCLUSION(S): HLA-G UTR-4 is significantly associated with time to pregnancy in couples undergoing infertility treatment. The findings could imply that both male and female HLA class Ib genetics have clinical relevance in reproduction.