A decrease in the number and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may increase the risk for progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Our aim was to evaluate EPC numbers in asymptomatic CVD type 1 diabetic patients with or without DN and to study the effect of CVD and medication on EPC numbers. Methods: We examined EPC numbers in 37 type 1 diabetic patients with DN and 35 type 1 diabetic patients with long-standing normoalbuminuria. Patients were without symptoms of CVD and the prevalence of CVD was previously shown to be very low. EPC number was assessed in in vitro cultures by fluorescent staining of attached cells. Results: There was no difference in EPC numbers between patients with DN (mean ± SD 120 ± 49 cells/field) and normoalbuminuria (108 ± 41 cells/field; p = 0.25). Furthermore, EPC number was not associated with CVD (p > 0.05). Conventional risk factors were significantly higher in patients with DN and they received more CVD-preventive treatment. All patients receiving simvastatin or calcium-channel blockers had higher numbers of EPC compared to patients not treated with these drugs. Conclusions: Asymptomatic patients with DN had EPC numbers similar to normoalbuminuric patients, which was related to aggressive CVD intervention therapy. This may have contributed to the low prevalence of CVD.