Mental health professionals using the DSM-5 and ICD-11 are allowed to describe personality disorders in terms of trait domain qualifiers (i.e., Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism/Dissociality, Disinhibition, Anankastia, and Psychoticism). The present study sought to evaluate the structural validity of both DSM-5 and ICD-11 traits in Algerian culture. Algerian university students (N = 638; 67.9% women) were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5–Brief Form (PID-5-BF). The expected empirical domain organization of DSM-5 and ICD-11 traits was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by a post hoc confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). As anticipated, the five-factor pattern overall corresponded to the five DSM-5 trait domains, including a domain of Psychoticism. Likewise, the four-factor structure overall aligned with the ICD-11 trait domain qualifiers, including a single factor denoting Disinhibition versus low Anankastia. However, a few items showed less adequate functioning across the two models, possibly due to cultural differences. Findings provided some support for the structural validity of DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality disorder trait models in Algerian culture, and the trait patterns overall resembled international findings on DSM-5 and ICD-11 trait domains. Future research warrants replication in clinical populations, and association with various health outcomes should be explored.