It is unknown if the somatic mutations in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), JAK2V617F and Calreticulin, are associated with oxidative stress, or impaired mitochondrial defense against reactive oxygen species. In the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS), including 116 JAK2V617F-mutated, 8 CALR-mutated, and 3310 mutation-negative participants without overt MPN, and in a study of 39 patients with myelofibrosis, the most advances type of MPNs, and 179 matched controls, we compared the urinary concentration of oxidized nucleosides - 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) - as markers of oxidative stress. In GESUS, we performed Mendelian randomization analyses, using the Ala16Val single nucleotide polymorphism in the superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2) gene. In the multivariate analyses in GESUS, the 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo concentration were 13% (95%CI: 6-21%, p < 0.001) and 6% (95%CI: 0.4-11%, p = 0.035) higher in mutation-positive than in mutation-negative participants, respectively. Each SOD2 T allele was associated with an odds ratio of being mutation-positive of 1.69 (95%CI: 1.12-2.55, p = 0.013) through 8-oxodG. The 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo concentrations were 77% (95%CI: 49-110%, p < 0.001) and 105% (95%CI: 80-133%, p < 0.001) higher in myelofibrosis patients than in controls, respectively. In conclusion, an impaired mitochondrial antioxidative defense, that is causatively associated with markers of oxidative stress, may contribute to the development of mutations associated with MPNs.