Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is the rarest and the most severe Philadelphianegative chronic myeloproliferative syndrome. By associating a clonal proliferation and a mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to spleen with profound alterations of the stroma, PMF is a remarkable model in which deregulation of the stem cell niche is of utmost importance for the disease development. This paper reviews key data suggesting that an imbalance between endosteal and vascular niches participates in the development of clonal stem cell proliferation. Mechanisms by which bone marrow niches are altered with ensuing mobilization and homing of neoplastic hematopoietic stem cells in new or reinitialized niches in the spleen and liver are examined. Differences between signals delivered by both endosteal and vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen of patients as well as the responsiveness of PMF stem cells to their specific signals are discussed. A proposal for integrating a potential role for the JAK2 mutation in their altered sensitivity is made. A better understanding of the cross talk between stem cells and their niche should imply new therapeutic strategies targeting not only intrinsic defects in stem cell signaling but also regulatory hematopoietic niche-derived signals and, consequently, stem cell proliferation.