Does Dexmedetomidine Have a Perineural Mechanism of Action When Used as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine?

Jakob H. Andersen*, Ulrik Grevstad, Hanna Siegel, Jørgen B. Dahl, Ole Mathiesen, Pia Jæger

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelpeer review

Abstrakt

Background: Dexmedetomidine used as an adjuvant to local anesthetics may prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. Whether this is mediated by a perineural or systemic mechanism remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that dexmedetomidine has a peripheral mechanism of action. Methods: The authors conducted a randomized, paired, triple-blind trial in healthy volunteers. All received bilateral saphenous nerve blocks with 20 ml ropivacaine, 0.5%, plus 1 ml dexmedetomidine, 100 μg/ml, in one thigh and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% plus 1 ml saline in the other thigh. The primary outcome measure was the duration of block assessed by temperature sensation (alcohol swab). The secondary outcome measure was the duration of block assessed by pinprick, pain during tonic heat stimulation, warmth detection threshold, and heat pain detection threshold. Results: All 21 enrolled volunteers completed the trial. The mean duration of block assessed by temperature sensation in the leg receiving ropivacaine plus dexmedetomidine was 22 h (95% CI, 21 to 24) compared to 20 h (95% CI, 19 to 21) in the leg receiving ropivacaine plus placebo with a mean difference of 2 h (95% CI, 1 to 3; P = 0.001). The duration of block was also significantly longer in the leg receiving dexmedetomidine when assessed by pinprick, pain during tonic heat stimulation, and warmth detection threshold but not heat pain detection threshold. One participant experienced numbness in an area in the leg receiving dexmedetomidine. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine prolongs the duration of a saphenous nerve block by a peripheral mechanism when controlling for systemic effects but not necessarily to a clinically relevant extent.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Sider (fra-til)66-73
Antal sider8
TidsskriftAnesthesiology
Vol/bind126
Udgave nummer1
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 jan. 2017

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