BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) have described localised non-ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) lesions of prognostic importance in various non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. Ischemic LGE lesions are prevalent in diabetes (DM), but non-ischemic LGE lesions have not previously been described or systematically studied in DM.
METHODS: 296 patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and 25 sex-matched control subjects underwent echocardiography and CMR including adenosine-stress perfusion, T1-mapping and LGE.
RESULTS: 264 patients and all control subjects completed the CMR protocol. 78.4% of patients with T2DM had no LGE lesions; 11.0% had ischemic LGE lesions only; 9.5% had non-ischemic LGE lesions only; and 1.1% had both one ischemic and one non-ischemic lesion. The non-ischemic LGE lesions were situated mid-myocardial in the basal lateral or the basal inferolateral part of the left ventricle and the affected segments showed normal to high wall thickness and normal contraction. Patients with non-ischemic LGE lesions in comparison with patients without LGE lesions had increased myocardial mass (150 ± 34 vs. 133 ± 33 g, P = 0.02), average E/e'(9.9 IQR8.7-12.6 vs. 8.8 IQR7.4-10.7, P = 0.04), left atrial maximal volume (102 IQR84.6-115.2 vs. 91 IQR75.2-100.0 mL, P = 0.049), NT-proBNP (8.9 IQR5.9-19.7 vs. 5.9 IQR5.9-10.1 µmol/L, P = 0.02) and high-sensitive troponin (15.6 IQR13.0-26.1 vs. 13.0 IQR13.0-14.6 ng/L, P = 0.007) and a higher prevalence of retinopathy (48 vs. 25%, P = 0.009) and autonomic neuropathy (52 vs. 30.5%, P = 0.005).
CONCLUSION: A specific LGE pattern with lesions in the basal lateral or the basal inferolateral part of the left ventricle was found in patients with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02684331.