A bicuspid aortic valve is not only a common congenital heart defect but also an enigmatic condition that can cause a large spectrum of diseases, such as aortic valve stenosis and severe heart failure in newborns whereas aortic dissection in adults. On the contrary, a bicuspid aortic valve can also occur with normal function throughout life and never need treatment. Numerous genetic mechanisms are involved in the abnormal cellular functions that may cause abnormal development of the aortic valve during early foetal life. As several chromosomal disorders are also associated with a bicuspid valve, there does not appear to be an apparent common trigger to the abnormal development of the aortic valve. The clinical care of the bicuspid aortic valve patient has been changed by a significant body of evidence that has improved the understanding of the natural history of the disease, including when to best intervene with valve replacement and when to provide prophylactic aortic root surgery. Moreover, as bicuspid valve disease is also part of various syndromes, we can identify high-risk patients in whom a bicuspid valve is much more unfavourable than in the normal population. This review provides an overview of all aspects of the bicuspid aortic valve condition and gives an updated perspective on issues from pathophysiology to clinical care of bicuspid aortic valve disease and associated aortic disease in asymptomatic, symptomatic, and pregnant patients, as well as our viewpoint on population screening.