Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the risk of both types of malignancies after an ET, PV, or CML diagnosis. We linked 2 population-based nationwide registries, the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals and the Danish Cancer Registry, and assessed subsequent cancer risk in a cohort of all 7229 patients diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of developing both new hematologic and nonhematologic cancers. The standardized incidence ratio for developing a nonhematologic cancer was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]): 1.0-1.4) for patients with ET, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) for patients with PV, and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.0) for patients with CML. We conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease.