Menopause is associated with a redistribution of adipose tissue towards central adiposity, known to cause insulin resistance. In this cross-sectional study of 33 women between 45 and 60 years, we assessed adipose tissue inflammation and morphology in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) across menopause and related this to menopausal differences in adipose tissue distribution and insulin resistance. We collected paired SAT and VAT biopsies from all women and combined this with anthropometric measurements and estimated whole-body insulin sensitivity. We found that menopause was associated with changes in adipose tissue phenotype related to metabolic dysfunction. In SAT, postmenopausal women showed adipocyte hypertrophy, increased inflammation, hypoxia and fibrosis. The postmenopausal changes in SAT was associated with increased visceral fat accumulation. In VAT, menopause was associated with adipocyte hypertrophy, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis. The postmenopausal changes in VAT phenotype was associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Based on these findings we suggest, that menopause is associated with changes in adipose tissue phenotype related to metabolic dysfunction in both SAT and VAT. Whereas increased SAT inflammation in the context of menopause is associated with VAT accumulation, VAT morphology is related to insulin resistance.