OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy and safety of carfilzomib-containing induction before salvage high-dose melphalan with autologous stem-cell transplantation (salvage ASCT) and maintenance with carfilzomib and dexamethasone after salvage ASCT in multiple myeloma.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial included patients with first relapse of multiple myeloma after upfront ASCT who were re-induced with four cycles of carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. Two months after salvage, ASCT patients were randomised to either observation or maintenance therapy with iv carfilzomib 27 → 56 mg/sqm and p.o. dexamethasone 20 mg every second week. The study enrolled 200 patients of which 168 were randomised to either maintenance with carfilzomib and dexamethasone (n = 82) or observation (n = 86).
RESULTS: Median time to progression (TTP) after randomisation was 25.1 months (22.5-NR) in the carfilzomib-dexamethasone maintenance group and 16.7 months (14.4-21.8) in the control group (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.71; P = .0004). The most common adverse events during maintenance were thrombocytopenia, anaemia, hypertension, dyspnoea and bacterial infections.
CONCLUSION: In summary, maintenance therapy with carfilzomib and dexamethasone after salvage ASCT prolonged TTP with 8 months. The maintenance treatment was in general well-tolerated with manageable toxicity.