In the evaluation of renal osteodystrophy bone biopsy is often performed. However, a reliable noninvasive test could be very useful, and recently the estimation of osseous tracer uptake as an index of bone formation has been introduced - the bone bisphosphonate clearance (BBC). The aim of the present investigation therefore was to compare BBC with parameters of bone histology, serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone in patients (n = 8) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). No significant correlations were found between BBC values and the bone histomorphometrical variables measured. A positive correlation was seen between serum osteocalcin and resorption and active resorption surface (p < 0.05), as well as tetracycline-labelled surface, bone formation rate, surfaces, volume and tissue referents, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of alkaline phosphatase showed significant correlations to mineral appositional rate, tetracycline-labelled surface and bone formation rate, volume referent (p < 0.05). Values of parathyroid hormone were significantly correlated to resorption surface (p < 0.02), active resorption surface, mineral appositional rate and mineralization lag time (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BBC was of no use in patients treated with CAPD as a noninvasive test for evaluation of bone histomorphometry. However, osteocalcin correlated best with resorption and bone dynamics indices. Levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were of a more limited value.