Objective: To review the literature on various endometrial factors assumed to be of importance to implantation and to evaluate their potential clinical value in the assessment of endometrial function at the time of implantation in infertile women in natural and stimulated cycles. Design: Literature review. Result(s): Cytokines such as leukemia inhibitory factor, colony-stimulating factor-1, and interleukin-1 have all been shown to play important roles in the cascade of events that leads to implantation. They participate in a synchronized cooperation between the endometrium and the preimplanting embryo under the influence of steroid hormones. The same applies to the integrin αvβ3, glycodelin, and the polymorphic mucin 1. The usefulness of these factors to assess endometrial receptivity and to estimate the prognosis for pregnancy in natural and artificial cycles remains to be proven. Conclusion(s): The studies performed to date have mostly included only small groups of patients with a lack of fertile controls, and only a few prospective, controlled trials have been carried out. Therefore, definite conclusions about the clinical value of these factors in the assessment of endometrial function and prognosis for pregnancy after artificial reproductive therapy cannot be drawn at present. Further evaluation of their importance for and function during implantation is needed.