Aims: To examine whether people with Type 2 diabetes with concurrent obstructive sleep apnoea have increased arterial stiffness as compared with people with Type 2 diabetes without obstructive sleep apnoea. Methods: In a study with a case–control design, 40 people with Type 2 diabetes and treatment-naïve moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea (Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index ≥15) and a control group of 31 people with Type 2 diabetes without obstructive sleep apnoea (Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index <5) were examined. Obstructive sleep apnoea status was evaluated using the ApneaLink®+ home-monitoring device (Resmed Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), providing the Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index scores. Arterial stiffness was assessed according to carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity using the Sphygmocor device and the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph® (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Results: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was not significantly different between participants with Type 2 diabetes with obstructive sleep apnoea and those without obstructive sleep apnoea (10.7±2.2 m/s vs 10.3±2.1 m/s; P=0.513), whereas oscillometric pulse wave velocity was significantly higher in participants with Type 2 diabetes with obstructive sleep apnoea than in those without obstructive sleep apnoea (9.5±1.0 m/s vs 8.6±1.4 m/s; P=0.002). In multiple regression analysis, age (P=0.002), gender (men; P=0.018) and HbA1c (P=0.027) were associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and systolic blood pressure (P=0.004) and age (P<0.001) were associated with oscillometric pulse wave velocity. After adjustment, presence of obstructive sleep apnoea was not independently associated with pulse wave velocity whether assessed by tonometry or oscillometry. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study did not find an age- and blood pressure-independent association between moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea and arterial stiffness in non-sleepy people with Type 2 diabetes. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT02482584).