In this retrospective multi-centre study, we report our experience with anagrelide in the treatment of thrombocytosis in patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases. Our study included 52 patients (age 20-78 years). The initial anagrelide dose was, in general, 0.5 mg once daily and mean maintenance dosage was 1.7 mg/day. The overall response rate was 79% including 75% complete remission and 4% partial remission. Forty-two patients (81%) had adverse effects and in 29% of the study population, the adverse effects necessitated cessation of anagrelide. The most common adverse effect was moderate anaemia (50%). Two patients experienced erectile dysfunction which has been described only once previously in association with anagrelide treatment. One patient progressed to acute leukaemia. However, this patient had been pre-treated with two potentially leukaemogenic drugs and had only been in short-term treatment with anagrelide. Furthermore, a total of 13 events were recorded. More than 25% of these events occurred in patients with platelet counts between 400 and 600 × 109/l and almost 40% of all events occurred in patients with platelet counts above 400 × 109/l. This observation supports the hypothesis that aggressive control of thrombocytosis to a platelet count <400 × 109/l might reduce the number of thrombohaemorrhagic events. Anagrelide is safe and effective in reducing the platelet counts, but a high proportion of the patients discontinue treatment because of the adverse effects of the drug.