OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the present study were to determine the association between (1) 10 individual biomarkers and all-cause mortality; and between (2) allostatic load (AL), across three physiological systems (cardiovascular, inflammatory, metabolic) and all-cause mortality.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: We used data from the Lolland-Falster Health Study undertaken in Denmark in 2016-2020 and used data on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse rate (PR), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum albumin. All biomarkers were divided into quartiles with high-risk values defined as those in the highest (PR, WHR, triglycerides, HbA1c, CRP) or lowest (HDL-c, albumin) quartile, or a combination hereof (LDL-c, SBP, DBP). The 10 biomarkers were combined into a summary measure of AL index. Participants were followed-up for death for an average of 2.6 years.
PARTICIPANTS: We examined a total of 13 725 individuals aged 18+ years.
PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Cox proportional hazard regression (HR) analysis were performed to examine the association between AL index and mortality in men and women.
RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased with increasing AL index. With low AL index as reference, the HR was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.89 to 1.98) for mid AL, and HR 2.37 (95% CI: 1.58 to 3.54) for high AL.
CONCLUSIONS: Elevated physiological burden measured by mid and high AL index was associated with a steeper increase of mortality than individual biomarkers.