(1) The study evaluated correlations between multi-frequency vibrometry (MF-V) and the measure of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy developed by the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (CIPN18). (2) Patients with cancer scheduled to undergo treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) or carboplatin and paclitaxel (Carbo-Tax) were recruited in a prospective, observational study with MF-V and the CIPN18 from baseline to one year after end of treatment. (3) The study recruited 31 evaluable patients. All MF-V measurements correlated significantly with the CIPN18 scores (r = 0.25-0.48, p > 0.003), with a low frequency (32 Hz) from metatarsals showing the best correlation coefficients (0.059 Z-score per CIPN18 point change, r = 0.48, CI-95 = [0.32; 0.60], p > 0.0001). The largest change in MF-V scores from baseline was seen in low-frequency VPTs taken from metatarsals at 8 Hz three months after end of treatment (from -0.26, CI-95 [-0.85, 0.38] to 1.15, CI-95 [0.53, 1.84]) for patients treated with oxaliplatin and at 32 Hz one year after end of treatment (from 0.09, CI-95 [-0.56, 0.77] to 0.88, CI-95 [0.34, 1.47]) for patients treated with paclitaxel. (4) Low-frequency vibration perception thresholds (8 and 32 Hz) correlated better with CIPN18 scores than high-frequency ones (128 and 250 Hz). If validated, this finding will advance CIPN pathophysiological understanding and inform the development of assessment methods.